Moradabad brass is valued for its golden lustre,is sand casted and the various levels of production are handled by specialized craftsmen and engravers have their own workshops. The entire process along with ornamentation usually takes 4 to 6 weeks. Kalamkari, Urdu for carving and pen work, is done with controlled strokes of the thapi, mallet, on fine pointed chisels. The engraving is shallow, called naqqashi or sada kalam, and deep engraving, called khudai or sia kalam. In khudai the designs are complicated, and the depressions are filled in with cultured lac. The lac sticks are heated and applied to the metal and the design gleams in golden tracery against the translucent jewel-cultured lac. Naqqashi is occasionally done on a tinned surface. Traditional styles are mostly floral arabesques. A traditional product is the paandaan, come in all shapes and sizes and are made by casting heavy-gauge sheet metal, either copper or brass. The hinges are physically made as well. Cast pieces are finished by sandpapering on the lathe.